Most of the reactions involved in cellular processes are regulated by enzymatic reactions that require trace elements for proper functioning. Some elements, however, can be toxic and interfere with enzymatic reactions.
It is therefore important to assess nutritional deficiencies and possible exposure to toxic elements.
Serum: Al, Co, Cu (serum), Cr, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Se, Si, V
Whole blood: Zn, Pb, Ru, Cd